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Jennifer Sorensen Forbey, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Department of Biological SciencesRainbow from S. Fork Boise River
Department: Biological Sciences
Year arrived at BSU: 2008

Mailing Address:
Department of Biological Sciences
Boise State University
Boise, ID 83725-1515

Office Location: Science 102C
Office Number: 208-426-4426
Office Fax: 208-426-1040
E-Mail Address:


  • B.S., Mesa State College, 1997
  • Ph.D., University of Utah, Biology, 2003
  • National Science Foundation International Research Postdoctoral Fellow (Australia & New Zealand), 2003-2007


Boise State University

  • Biology 191: General Biology I
  • Biology 192: General Biology II
  • Biology 297: Scientific Immersion Research Course
  • Zoology 409: Comparative Animal Physiology
  • Biology498/598: Science and Society (formerly Sagebrush Habitat Ecology)
  • Biology 497 and 597: Special Topics in Plant-Animal Interactions

University of Utah

  • Pharmaceutical Sciences 5113 and 7113: Pharmacokinetics
  • Biology 3460: Global Environmental Issues

Oregon State University

  • Fish and Wildlife 317: Biology of Mammals

Teaching Philosophy

My goal as an educator and mentor is to provide the knowledge to transform students into independent and analytical thinkers and broadly prepare students for careers in science. I provide skills in analytical thinking by offering opportunities to write critically, communicate and debate scientific issues with their peers and design, conduct and analyze scientific research. Moreover, my experiences conducting research in academic, industrial and governmental settings will allow me to mentor students interested in careers in a variety of scientific disciplines. I believe that my teaching background, commitment to students and experience in diverse scientific career paths will contribute to the outstanding education, research opportunities and mentoring students expect from Boise State.




Animals are faced with the daily challenge of processing large quantities of toxins present in their environment. However, the way animals respond and deal with these toxins is poorly understood. I am interested in understanding the behavioral and physiological consequences of exposure to plant secondary metabolites (i.e. toxins) and the mechanisms that herbivores employ to mitigate the negative effects of exposure to plant toxins. My research focuses on two general areas related to plant-herbivore interactions employing a combination of laboratory and field-based approaches:

  1. Evolutionary diversity of plant-animal chemical interactions: The main aim of this research is to evaluate the evolutionary diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and the evolutionary diversity of receptor targets and mechanisms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of PSMs in animals. Specific study systems include: sage-grouse in Idaho, Oregon and Wyoming; pygmy rabbits and Piute ground squirrels in Idaho; snowshoe hares in Alaska; moose in Isle Royale. These projects may reveal the co-evolutionary interactions between plants and animals, but can also be applied to conservation efforts to manage the species involved in these interactions.  For example,  in a collaboration with USGS, University of Florida, University of Idaho and Washington State University we use unmanned aerial vehicles to map attributes of quality habitats for pygmy rabbits (PosterUAV video). These projects are supported by the National Science Foundation, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Office of Species Conservation, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Wyoming Game and Fish, US Geological Survey, US Forest Service. Jen holding birdtagging birdcamp
  2. Pharm-Ecology: An ecological approach to natural product drug discovery: The main aim of this research is to utilize the technology and insight of two disparate, yet highly complementary fields: ecology (both physiological and chemical) and pharmacology (science of drugs, including their composition, uses, and effects) to discover the biological activity of natural products in the areas of infectious disease and cancer. Insight from the interactions between PSMs and the physiological and behavioral responses of herbivores to these compounds will expedite drug discovery and reveal the mechanisms by which bioactive molecules are therapeutic or toxic.  For example, we have worked with high school students to identify the bioactive properties of sagebrush (  This research is supported by the National Institutes of Health (INBRE), the National Science Foundation, Fulbright and is a collaboration with the College of Idaho, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Icelandic Institute of Natural History and Grimsö Wildlife Research Station at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.


(previously Sorensen, J.S. Sorensen/Forbey authorship in bold, graduate student authorship indicated with *, undergraduate authorship indicated with **)

43. Jennifer S. Forbey, Gail L. Patricelli, Donna M. Delparte, Alan. H. Krakauer, Peter J. Olsoy*, Marcella R. Fremgen*, Jordan D. Nobler*, Lucas P. Spaete, Lisa A. Shipley, Janet L. Rachlow, Amy K. Dirksen*, Anna Perry*, Bryce A. Richardson, Nancy F. Glenn. Accepted Wildlife Biology. Emerging Technology to Measure Habitat Quality and Behavior of Grouse: examples from studies of Greater Sage-grouse. DIO: 10.2981/wlb.00238

42. Marcella R. Fremgen*, Daniel Gibson, Rebecca L. Ehrlich*, Alan H. Krakauer, Jennifer S. Forbey, Erik J. Blomberg, Jim S. Sedinger, Gail L. Patricelli. Accepted Wildlife Biology. Necklace-style radio-transmitters are associated with changes in display vocalizations of male Greater Sage-grouse.

41. Laura A. McMahon, Janet L. Rachlow, Lisa A. Shipley, Jennifer S. Forbey, Timothy R. Johnson, Peter J. Olsoy. Accepted PLOS ONE. Evaluation of micro-GPS receivers for tracking small-bodied mammals.

40. Sherburne, Jessica*; Anaya, Amanda; Fernie, Kim; Forbey, Jennifer; Furlong, Edward; Kolpin, Dana; Dufty, Alfred; Kinney, Chad. The occurrence of triclocarban and triclosan within a terrestrial food web: from biosolids to birds. Environmental Science & Technology 50.24 (2016): 13206-13214. PDF

39. Olsoy PJ*, Griggs TC, Ulappa AC*, Gehlken K**, Shipley LA, Shewmaker GE, Forbey JS. 2016. Nutritional analysis of sagebrush by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Arid Environments 134:125-131. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2016.07.003. (PDF)

38. Kohl, K.D., J.W. Connelly, M.D. Dearing, J.S. Forbey. 2016. Microbial detoxification in the gut of a specialist avian herbivore, the Greater Sage-Grouse. FEMS microbiology letters. fnw144. (PDF)

37. Parikh, G. L.*, Forbey, J. S., Robb, B.**, Peterson, R. O., Vucetich, L. M. and Vucetich, J. A. 2017. The influence of plant defensive chemicals, diet composition, and winter severity on the nutritional condition of a free-ranging, generalist herbivore. Oikos, 126:196-203. doi:10.1111/oik.03359. (PDF)

36. Utz, J.*, L.A. Shipley, J. Rachlow, T.L. Johnstone-Yellin, M.J. Camp*, J.S. Forbey. 2016. Understanding tradeoffs between predation and food risks in a specialist mammalian herbivore. Wildlife Biology, 22(4): 167-173. (PDF)

35. Miranda M. Crowell*, Lisa A. Shipley, Meghan J. Camp*, Janet L. Rachlow, Jennifer S. Forbey, and Timothy R. Johnson. 2016. Selection of food patches by sympatric herbivores in response to concealment and distance from a refuge. Ecology and Evolution, 6(9), 2865-2876. (PDF)

34. Camp, M.J.*, L.A. Shipley, T.R. Johnson, M.M. Crowell*, J.S. Forbey, J.L. Rachlow. 2015. Modeling tradeoffs between the risk of starvation and toxicity: A framework for understanding habitat selection. Ecology. 96(12): 3292-3302. (PDF)

33. Kohl, K.D.*, E. Pitman**, J.W. Connelly, M.D. Dearing, J.S. Forbey. Accepted at Journal of Comparative Physiological Biology-B. Monoterpenes as inhibitors of digestive enzymes and counter-adaptations in a specialist avian herbivore. (PDF)

32. Pu,, X , L. Lam**, K. Gehlken**, A.C. Ulappa*, J.L. Rachlow, J.S. Forbey. Accepted at Western North American Naturalist. Antioxidant capacity of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. Wyomingensis) varies spatially and is not related to the presence of a sagebrush dietary specialist. 95(4): 834-842.(PDF)

31. Olsoy, P.J.*, J.S. Forbey, J.L. Rachlow, J.D. Nobler*, N.F. Glenn, L.A. Shipley. In Press at BioScience. Fearscapes: mapping functional cover of prey with terrestrial LiDAR. (PDF)

30. McArthur, C., P.B. Banks, R. Boonstra, J.S. Forbey. 2014. The dilemma of foraging herbivores: dealing with food and fear. Oecologia. 176(3):677-689. (PDF)

29. Ulappa, A.C.*, R.G. Kelsey, G.G Frye*, J.L. Rachlow, L.A. Shipley, L. Bond, X. Pu, J.S. Forbey. 2014. Plant protein and secondary metabolites influence diet selection in a mammalian specialist herbivore. Journal of Mammalogy. 95(4): 834-842. (PDF)

28. Frye, G.G.*, J.W. Connelly, D.D. Musil, C. Cardinal, L. Cross, J.S. Forbey. 2014. Do necklace-style radiotransmitters influence flushing behavior of greater sage-grouse? The Wildlife Society Bulletin. 38(2):433-438. (PDF)

27. Forbey, J.S., N.L. Wiggins, G.G. Frye*, J.W. Connelly. 2013. Hungry grouse in a warming world: Emerging risks from plant chemical defenses and climate change. Wildlife Biology. 19: 374-381. (PDF)

26. Frye, G.G.*, J.W. Connelly, D.D. Musil, J.S. Forbey. 2013. Phytochemistry predicts habitat selection by an avian herbivore at multiple spatial scales. Ecology. 94(2): 308-314. (PDF)

25. Forbey, J.S., M.D. Dearing, E. Gross, C. Orians, E. Sotka and W.J. Foley. 2013. Vertebrate Herbivores in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems: A Pharm-Ecological Perspective. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39(4): 465-480. (PDF)

24. Shipley, L.A., E.M. Davis, L.A. Felicetti, S. McLean, J.S. Forbey. 2012. Mechanisms for eliminating monoterpenes in sagebrush by specialist and generalist rabbits. J Chem Ecol. 38:1178-1189. (PDF)

23. Forbey J.S., X. Pu, D. Xu, K. Kielland, J.P. Bryant. 2011. Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mode of action for papyriferic acid in birch to deter snowshoe hares. J Chem Ecol. 37:1285-1293. (PDF)

22. Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D, Charleston, M., Clissold, F., Working Group1. 2010. Modeling nutritional interactions: from individuals to communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 25(1): 53-60. Online 17 August. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.06.0121 The Working Group comprised of several contributors, including J.S. Forbey. However, TREE limits the number of authors to five. (PDF)

21. Forbey, J.S., A.L. Harvey, M.A. Huffman, F. Provenza, R. Sullivan, D. Tasdemir. 2009.   Exploitation of secondary metabolites by animals: A response to homeostatic challenges. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 49(3):314-328. (PDF)

20. Forbey, JS and WJ Foley. 2009 A pharmacological approach to understanding plant-herbivore interactions: an introduction to the Pharm-Ecology Symposium. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 49(3):267-273. (PDF)

19. Sotka, E.E., J.S. Forbey, M.H. Horn, A.G.B. Poore, D. Raubenheimer and K.E. Whalen. 2009. The emerging role of pharmacology in understanding marine and freshwater consumer-prey interactions. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 49(3):291-313. (PDF)

18. Shipley, L.A., B. Moore and J.S. Forbey. 2009. Revisiting the dietary niche: when is a mammalian herbivore a specialist? Integrative and Comparative Biology. 49(3):274-290. (PDF)

17. Dearing, M.D., J. S. Forbey, J. D. McLister, L. Santos**. 2008. Ambient temperature influences diet selection and physiology of an herbivorous mammal, Neotoma albigula. Physiological Biochemical Zoology. 81(6): 891–897. (PDF)

16. McLean, S., R.R. Boyle, S. Brandon, N.W. Davies and J.S. Sorensen. 2007. Pharmacokinetics of 1,8-cineole, a dietary toxin, in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula): significance for feeding. Xenobiotica. 37(9):903-922. (PDF)

15. Sorensen, J.S., K.C. Forbey, R. Tanquay and B. McLeod. 2007. Tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) exposed to Eucalyptus terpenes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C. Toxicology and Pharmacology. 145(2):194-201. (PDF)

14. Sorensen, J.S. and M.D. Dearing. 2006. Efflux transporters as a novel herbivore counter mechanism to plant chemical defenses. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32(6):1181-96. (PDF)

13. Sorensen, J.S., M. Skopec and M.D. Dearing. 2006. Application of pharmacological approaches to plant-mammal interactions. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32(6):1229-46.(PDF)

12. Marsh, K.J.*, I.R. Wallis, S. McLean, J.S. Sorensen and W.J. Foley. 2006. Conflicting demands on detoxification pathways influence how common brushtail possums choose their diets. Ecology. 87:2103-2112. (PDF)

11. Sorensen, J.S., J. D. McLister and M.D. Dearing. 2005a. Plant secondary metabolites compromise the energy budgets of specialist and generalist mammalian herbivores. Ecology. 86: 125-139. (PDF)

10. Sorensen, J.S., J.D. McLister and M.D. Dearing. 2005b. Novel plant secondary metabolites impact the performance of a specialist more than a generalist (Neotoma spp.). Ecology. 86: 140-154. (PDF)

9. Dearing, M.D., J.D. McLister and J.S. Sorensen. 2005. Woodrat (Neotoma) herbivores maintain nitrogen balance on a low nitrogen, high phenolic forage, Juniperus monosperma. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systematic, and Environmental Physiology. 175(5): 349-355. (PDF)

8. Sorensen, J.S., E. Heward**, and M.D. Dearing. 2005c. Plant secondary metabolites alter the feeding patterns of a mammalian herbivore (Neotoma lepida). Oecologia. 146:415-422. (PDF)

7. McLister, J.D., J.S. Sorensen and M.D. Dearing. 2004. The effect of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) consumption on the cost of thermoregulation in the woodrats Neotoma albigula and Neotoma stephensi depends upon acclimation temperature. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 77(2): 305-312. (PDF)

6. Sorensen, J.S., C.A. Turnbull** and M.D. Dearing. 2004. A specialist herbivore (Neotoma stephensi) absorbs fewer plant toxins than a generalist (Neotoma albigula). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 77(1): 139-148. (PDF)

5. Lamb, J. G., P. Chaterjie, P. Marick, J. S. Sorensen, S. Haley*, and M. Denise Dearing. 2004. Liver biotransforming enzymes in woodrats Neotoma stephensi (Muridae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C. 138(2): 195-201. (PDF)

4. Sorensen, J.S. and M.D. Dearing. 2004. Physiological limitations of dietary specialization in herbivorous woodrats (Neotoma spp.) in Animals and Environments: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry ISC1275. Ed. S. Morris and A. Vosloo. Elsevier. Pp 313-320. (PDF)

3. Sorensen, J.S. and M.D. Dearing. 2003. Elimination of plant toxins: an explanation for dietary specialization in mammalian herbivores. Oecologia. 134: 88-94. (PDF)

2. Lamb, J.G., J.S. Sorensen, and M.D. Dearing. 2001. Comparison of detoxification enzyme mRNAs in woodrats (Neotoma lepida) and laboratory rats. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 27(4): 845-857. (PDF)

Book Chapters

1. Forbey, J.S. and M.D. Hunter. 2012. The herbivore’s prescription: A pharm-ecological perspective on host plant use by vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. In The ecology of plant secondary metabolites: genes to global processes. Eds. GR Iason, M. Dicke and SE Hartley. Ecological Reviews. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (PDF)

Other publications:

Forbey, JS, Gail L. Patricelli, Donna M. Delparte, Alan. H. Krakauer, Peter J. Olsoy*, Marcella R. Fremgen*, Jordan D. Nobler*, Nancy F. Glenn, Lucas P. Spaete, Bryce A. Richardson, Lisa A. Shipley, Jessica Mitchell. 2016. Overview of a Workshop to Expand the Use of Emerging Technology to Understand the Ecology of Grouse in a Changing Climate. Grouse News 52: 7-18. PDF.

Peña, Jacqueline**, Marcella Fremgen*, Jennifer Forbey. “Is Diet Selection by Greater Sage-Grouse Influenced by Biomass Availability or Toxins?.” McNair Scholars Research Journal 12.1 (2016): 16. PDF

M.R. Fremgen. 2015. Diversity within a Species: Studying Sagebrush Morphotypes. Sage Notes 37(1): 12-13. Idaho Native Plants Society. Available at:

Moore, B.D., W.J. Foley, J.S. Forbey, J.L. DeGabriel. 2013. Response letter to ”Self-medication in animals,” J. C. de Roode et al., Perspectives, 12 April, p. 150. Science. 340: 1041 (PDF)PDF

Forbey, JS. 2013. Evolutionary insight merges with toxicology, a review of Monosson, Emily. 2012. Evolution in a toxic world: how life responds to chemical threats. Ecology. 94(1): 257-264.(PDF)

Forbey, JS, G.G. Frye, X. Pu and J.W. Connelly. 2011. Toxic Scat: A mechanism to prevent overdosing on plant chemicals by grouse. Grouse News 42:24-29. (PDF), see pg 24


– NIH-INBRE 3 (Mentor), $764,000 to College of Idaho (2014-19)

– NSF-DEB-1146194 (PI), $291,000 of $980,000 total collaborative award (2012-16)

– NSF-IOS-1258217 (PI of subaward), $38,400 of $470,000 award (2013-16)

– Idaho Army National Guard (PI), $9000 (2014)

– Idaho Office of Species Conservation, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and Sage-Grouse Local Working Groups (PI), $178,325 (2010-16)

– BLM-Challenge Cost Share LO9AC16253 (PI), $82,500 (2010-15)

– Wyoming Game and Fish Dept. and Sage-Grouse Local Working Groups (Co-PI), $17,000 (2013-16)

– Boise State College of Arts and Sciences, Mini-Development Grant for the IdahoWatch Program, $5000 (2011-12)

– BLM-CESU Award ID: LO9AC15385 (PI), $13,940 (2009-11)

– NSF Workshop for PharmEcology Symposium NSF-0827239 (PI), $27,400 (2008-10)

– NSF-International Research Fellowship Program INT-0301898 (PI), $106,724 (2003-08)

– Oregon State University General Research Fund (PI), $9947 (2005)

– Australian National University, National Institute of Bioscience Visiting Student Award, AU$2500 (2003)

– US Fulbright Postgraduate Student Award (PI) – Decline for NSF award (2003)


Students and teachers from IdahoWatch 2014

Students and teachers from IdahoWatch 2014

I recently developed IdahoWatch, a new STEM Service-Learning model, where graduate and undergraduate students take K-12 teachers into the field to learn about local research. The teachers participated in citizen science by recording behavior of Piute ground squirrels, greater sage-grouse and pygmy rabbits, and measuring habitat quality and use of habitats by these native species. They collected data and samples in the field that they use in lessons plans to teach their students what, how ,and why researchers study in this local ecosystem. (Article)


2014 – Invited IGNITE Speaker, The Wildlife Society Conference: “The Herbivore’s Prescription: A Tale of Wildlife-Directed Bioprospecting”, Oct 2014.

2014 – Invited Seminar Speaker, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Oct 2014.

2014 – Invited Seminar Speaker, “The fate and consequences of eating toxic plants: pharmacological lessons from the wild side”, Dept. of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Idaho State University, Sept 2014.

2014 – Invited Symposium Speaker for Evolutionary Ecology Symposium: “Molecular mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant chemical defenses in vertebrate herbivores”, International Society for Chemical Ecology Meeting, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, July 8-12, 2014.

2014 – Speaker: 29th Sage & Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse Workshop: “Detecting palatable plants for sage-grouse in the sagebrush sea”. Elko, NV, 17-19 Jun 2014.

2014 – Invited Seminar Speaker, Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California – Davis, Jan 2014.

2013 – Invited Symposium Speaker: Owyhee Research and Restoration Roundup. “Sage-grouse’s eye view of habitat quality” Marsing, ID, 23 Oct, 2013.

2013 – Invited Symposium Speaker: AAAS Symposium – Mechanisms of Tumor Progression & Cancer Therapeutics. “A co-evolutionary strategy to discovery novel anticancer drugs”, Las Vegas, USA, 18 June 2013.

2013 – Invited Symposium Speaker: Plant Herbivore Interactions Gordon Conference. “Scaling up dose-response curves: Translation between lab and landscape”, Ventura, USA, 24-28 February 2013.

2013 – Invited Conference Speaker for Great Basin Consortium Conference 2013: “A hungry sage-grouse’s view on habitats and climate”

2012 – Speaker: International Grouse Symposium 2012: “Hungry grouse in a warming world”. Matsumoto, Japan, 20-24 July 2012.

2011 – Invited Seminar Speaker: Department of Biological Science, California State University Fullerton. “Nature’s Chemical Arms Race: The defensive strategies of plants and herbivores”

2010 – Invited Symposium Speaker: British Ecological Society Annual Symposium 2010: “The integrative role of plant secondary metabolites in ecological systems.” University of Sussex, UK, 12 – 14 April, 2010. Invited by Dr. Glenn Iason (Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, UK). “The herbivore’s prescription: A pharmacological perspective on host plant use by herbivores”

2009 – Conference Organizer: Society for Integrative and Comparative Physiology Symposium host: “PharmEcology: Integrating Ecological Systems and Pharmacology”, Jan 3-7, 2009; Supported by NSF0827239, JS Forbey, PI

2008 – Invited Seminar Speaker: Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University and Department of Fish & Wildlife Resources, University of Idaho, “Behavioral, physiological and biochemical offenses of mammalian herbivores against plant chemical defenses”

2008 – Presentation: Pediatric Academic Societies’ Annual Meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, May 3-6, Hawaii Convention Center, “Morphine analgesia and developmental kinetics in 3 to 18 year old children”

2008 – Presentation: 5th Annual Pediatric Research Conference, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, “Morphine analgesia and developmental kinetics in 3 to 18 year old children”

2008 – Invited Poster: Regional Center for Excellence National Meeting for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, Chicago, IL “The Translational Critical Path Initiative (TCPI) Catalyzes Discoveries into Products”

2007 – Invited Workshop Participant: Working Group 29: Herbivory; ARC/NZ Vegetation Function Network; Workshop at The University of Sydney

2007 – Invited Speaker: Department of Biology, Boise State University, “Ecology Meets Pharmacology:  Mechanisms and Consequences of Toxin Exposure in Mammalian Herbivores”

2007 – Invited Speaker: Annual Rocky Mountain Regional Center for Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, Fort Collins, CO. “From Ideas to Products: How the Translational Development Subcommittee, Intellectual Property Subcommittee and Cores Work For You”

2006 – Invited Lecture: University of Utah, “Preclinical Research in Drug Discovery and Development”, Salt Lake City, UT

2005 – Invited Symposium Speaker: International Mammalogical Congress, Symposium for Defensive Strategies Against Plant Secondary Metabolites in Mammals, “Overlapping lessons from human-drug interactions and plant-herbivore interactions”, Sapporo, Japan

2005 – Invited Speaker: NPS Pharmaceuticals, “Pharmacological foundations in ecology:  the complementary nature of human-drug interactions and plant-herbivore interactions”, Salt Lake City, UT

2005 – Invited Speaker: Department of Biological Science, California State University, “Toxin tolerance in mammalian herbivores: mechanisms, constraints and implications for human benefit”, Fullerton, CA

2005 – Invited Speaker: Department of Biological Science, University of Montana, “Trade-offs of dietary specialization in a mammalian herbivore”, Missoula, MT

2004 – Invited Symposium Speaker: Plant-Animal Interactions Gordon Research Conference, “The importance of regulated absorption of plant secondary metabolites by herbivores”, Ventura Beach, CA

2004 – Invited Speaker: AgResearch Invermay & University of Otago, “The role of regulated absorption of toxins in herbivores and the biocontrol of brushtail possums”, Dunedin, New Zealand

2004 – Invited Speaker: Third International Conference of Comparative Physiology & Biochemistry in Africa: Animals and Environments, “Mammalian herbivores modify foraging patterns to regulate exposure to plant secondary metabolites”, Ithala Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

2004 – Invited Speaker: James Cook University, School of Tropical Biology, “No free toxic lunch- tradeoffs of dietary specialization in mammalian herbivores”, Cairns, Queensland, Australia