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Biology Upper Division


BIOL 303 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY (3-6-5)(F). Metabolism, ecological roles, and disease patterns of bacterial, archaeal, viral, and eukaryotic microorganisms. Structure and function, growth and reproduction, physiology, ecology, genetics, diversity, environmental factors, control of microorganisms, antimicrobial agents. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192, CHEM 112, 112L. PRE/COREQ: CHEM 301 or CHEM 307-308.

BIOL 304 BIOLOGY III: FOUNDATIONS OF ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (3-3-4)(F,S,SU). An introduction to current theories and practices in ecology and evolution, with a focus on the fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes that influence the diversification, distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the role of organisms in the flux of energy and cycling of matter. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 and MATH 254.

BIOL 306 COMMUNICATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (3-0-3)(F,S)(CID). Development of written and oral communication skills necessary for future careers in the biological sciences. Skills include summarizing and evaluating scientific research, and communicating scientific information to targeted audiences. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and ENGL 101, 102.

BIOL 310 GENETICS (3-0-3)(F,S,Su). A study of the principles of genetics as they relate to living organisms.PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or BIOL 191 and BIOL 320. PRE/COREQ: CHEM 301 or 307.

BIOL 320 CELL BIOLOGY (3-0-3)(F,S,Su). Structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 and CHEM 112, or BIOL 191 and either CHEM 301 or 307, or BIOL 227-228 and either CHEM 301 or 307.

BIOL 321 CELL BIOLOGY LABORATORY (0-8-3)(S)(Even years). Modern techniques to investigate cellular structure and function. PREREQ: BIOL 310 and BIOL 320, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 323 ECOLOGY (3-3-4)(F,S,Su)(CID). A survey of how physical and biological factors determine the abundance and distribution of plants and animals. Concepts at the physiological, population, community, and ecosystems level will be discussed. Field and laboratory exercises will investigate questions concerning habitat, populations, and communities. Weekend field trips may be taken. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 and MATH 254.

BIOL 340 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LECTURE (3-0-3)(F). A survey of the discovery and application of molecular biology as a core component in areas of research such as human genetics, medical biology, cellular biology and biotechnology. Draws upon examples of current research, including case studies and articles from the primary literature. PREREQ: BIOL 310.

BIOL 344 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY (0-8-3)(Intermittently). Modern molecular and cellular techniques including cloning, computer analysis of DNA sequences, karyotyping, DNA amplification, and use of Southern and Western blots for transgene detection and expression analysis. Some laboratory time will be arranged. PRE/COREQ: BIOL 310 and BIOL 320, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 400 ORGANIC EVOLUTION (3-0-3)(F, S, Su). Philosophical basis of evolutionary theory. Detailed examination of genetic variation, mechanisms of evolutionary change, adaptation, speciation, and phylogeny. Genetics recommended. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and BIOL 310 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 406 SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (3-0-3)(S). Showcases scientific advances made by local biologists from academia, government agencies, and private organizations who conduct research that intersects with societal issues and needs. Offers social opportunities to develop networks with these researchers and gain career advice in a variety of fields and institutions. Upon completing this course, students will understand how biological concepts, theory, and practice link to policy and how to communicate science to the public through outreach activities. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST

BIOL 409 MOLECULAR ECOLOGY (3-0-3)(F)(Odd years). Theory and methodologies. Use of molecular genetic markers to study ecological phenomena (e.g., mating systems, parentage and kinship, population structure, gene flow, dispersal, natural selection). Emphasis on an hypothesis-testing approach. Appropriateness of particular molecular techniques to specific research questions. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and BIOL 310.

BIOL 410 PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY (2-6-4)(S)(Odd years). Medically important bacteria, rickettsia, and chlamydia are surveyed with emphasis on their pathogenicity, host-parasite relationships, and the clinical and diagnostic aspects of the diseases they produce in humans and animals. PREREQ: BIOL 303 and BIOL 320.

BIOL 412 GENERAL PARASITOLOGY (2-3-3)(Intermittently). Study of animal parasites with emphasis on those of man and his domestic animals. Lectures cover general biology, life history, structure, function, distribution, and significance of parasites. Laboratory provides experience in identification and detection. PREREQ: BIOL 320 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 413 SYMBIOSIS (3-0-3)(S)(Odd Years). Explores parasitic, commensalistic, and mutualistic relationships among different organisms. The diversity, evolution, and ecology of symbioses will be analyzed through discussion of primary research articles. Students will lead discussion sessions and prepare a mini-review essay. PREREQ: Junior Standing. 

BIOL 415 MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY (3-3-4)(S)(FF). Microbial physiology is the study of structure and function in microbial cells, biosynthesis of macromolecule precursors and their assembly into macromolecules, growth dynamics, integration of metabolic pathways at the level of gene expression and enzymatic activity, and responses to environmental changes. Experimental methodologies will be focused on various applications of microbial physiology. PREREQ: BIOL 303, and CHEM 301 or CHEM 307-308, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 416 MICROBIAL ECOLOGY (3-0-3)(S)(Odd years). Focuses on the relationships among and biogeochemical role of microorganisms in natural communities. Course topics are structured to demonstrate the linkages between microbial ecology, diversity, and evolution; ecological interactions and ecosystem processes catalyzed by microorganisms; and understanding the role of microbial metabolism in controlling elemental cycling on local to global scales. PREREQ: BIOL 205 or BIOL 303, BIOL 304, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 420 IMMUNOLOGY (3-0-3)(F). Principles of immunology, host defense mechanisms, the immune response, immune disorders, serology, and related topics. PREREQ: BIOL 320.

BIOL 422 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (3-0-3)(S)(Odd years). An introduction to the field of conservation biology, the applied science concerned with understanding the effects of human activities on natural biological systems and with developing practical approaches to prevent the loss of biodiversity. Topics covered will include conservation genetics, demographic analysis, habitat degradation, over exploitation, and restoration ecology. Discussion of the social, political, and economic aspects of conservation biology. PREREQ: BIOL 304.

BIOL 424 SENSORY ECOLOGY (2-2-3)(F)(Odd years). Sensory ecology aims to understand how signals are produced, how they travel through the environment, how they are detected, how the receiver responds to them and ultimately how signals have evolved and shaped ecological processes such as trophic interactions and species’ distributions. Labs will focus on sensory techniques and experimental design. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 425 BASIC AND APPLIED DATA ANALYSIS IN BIOLOGY (2-2-3) (F)(Odd years). Univariate statistics using computer software (JMP, SAS Institute, Inc.) with applications to biology, natural resources, environmental science, health care, education, industry, and other professional disciplines. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 426 INSECT ECOLOGY (3-0-3)(S)(Even years). Life history evolution, insect-plant interactions, predation and parasitism, reproduction, insect societies, chemical ecology, biodiversity and pest management. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 427 STREAM ECOLOGY (3-3-4)(F)(Odd years). The biology and ecology of flowing waters is emphasized; their biota, management, and ecology at both the community and ecosystem level will be discussed. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 431 PHARMACOLOGY (3-0-3)(F). Basic pharmacological principles including mechanisms of drug action in relation both to drug-receptor interactions and to the operation of physiological and biochemical systems. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, receptor theory and an examination of major classes of therapeutic agents used in humans. PREREQ: BIOL 227-228 or ZOOL 401, and BIOL 320. PRE/COREQ BIOL 310.

BIOL 433 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (3-0-3)(F)(Odd years). Focuses on the evolutionary significance of animal behavior in relation to the ecology of the organisms. Using theoretical background and recent empirical evidence, mating systems, foraging, parental care, selfishness and altruism, competition, territoriality, and other behavioral patterns will be assessed in relation to the survival and reproduction of animals. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 434 PRINCIPLES OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT (3-0-3)(S). Integrative approach to managing game and non-game populations and habitat. Tools to determine population status, strategies to increase or decrease populations, implementing monitoring programs. Current quantitative approaches within context of the ecosystem-based view of wildlife and habitat management. PREREQ: BIOL 304.

BIOL 435 ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY (3-0-3)(F)(Even years). Integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions. With emphasis on current topics such as global climate change, land-use change and species invasions. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 440 GENERAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY (3-0-3)(Intermittently). General and molecular principles of mammalian toxicology including toxicant disposition, mechanisms of toxicity, target organ toxicity, and major classes of toxic agents. PREREQ: BIOL 320 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 441 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CANCER (3-0-3)(S). A treatment of the basic biology of cancer and the process of tumor progression. Topics examined will include oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and the causes of cancer. PREREQ: BIOL 310, BIOL 320.

BIOL 442 MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY (3-0-3)(F). Cells of the nervous system, neurochemical transmission, nerve terminals, membrane structure and function, electrical signaling, neural development, process outgrowth and myelination and glia, and specific neural diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s disease. PREREQ: BIOL 320 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 444 VACCINOLOGY (3-0-3)(Intermittently). Discussion of the history, safety, epidemiology, molecular biology and immunology of vaccines. Development of the next generation of vaccines to combat infectious disease of global importance, such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, also will be discussed. PREREQ: BIOL 310 and BIOL 320, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 446 BIOINFORMATICS (2-3-3)(S). Practical training in bioinformatics methods: accessing sequence data bases, BLAST tools, analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences, detection of motifs and domains of proteins, phylogenetic analysis, gene arrays, and gene mapping. PREREQ: BIOL 310 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 447 FORENSIC BIOLOGY (3-0-3)(F). Analysis and interpretation of biological evidence in forensic contexts. Topics include entomology, botany, fingerprints, toxicology, DNA, pathology, anthropology and odontology. PREREQ: BIOL 310 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 449 GENOMICS (3-0-3)(F/S). A fusion of biology, computer science, and mathematics to answer biological questions. Topics include analyzing eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral genes and genomes; locating genes in genomes and identifying their biological functions; predicting regulatory sites; assessing gene and genome evolution; and analyzing gene expression data. PREREQ: BIOL 310 and MATH 254, or PERM/INST.

BIOL 451 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (3-3-4)(S)(Odd years). Germ cell development, comparative patterns of cleavage and gastrulation, neurulation and induction, and development of human organ systems with emphasis on molecular and cellular mechanisms. Laboratory studies of sea urchin, frog, chick, and pig development. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 and BIOL 320.

BIOL 452 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY (1-6-2)(F) (Odd years). Application of molecular and cellular methods to current topics in developmental biology. Analysis of current literature in biology with emphasis on the coordinated regulation of gene expression, cellular differentiation and migration. Laboratory studies include model systems such as chick, zebrafish, sea urchin and mouse, utilizing cell/tissue culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, protein purification, SDS-PAGE, western blot and others. Previous enrollment in BIOL 344 and ZOOL 351 recommended. PREREQ: BIOL 451.

BIOL 454 APPLICATIONS OF MASS SPECTROMETRY IN BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH (3-0-3)(S). The course will include 1) basic aspects of mass spectrometry and most common instruments used in biological research, 2) current approaches in mass spectrometry-based qualitative and quantitative proteomics, 3) basic aspects of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, and 4) imaging mass spectrometry. PREREQ: CHEM 301.

BIOL 456 ADVANCED HISTOLOGY LABORATORY (0-3-1)(F). Students will gain hands-on experience with advanced histology techniques and methodologies. PREREQ: BIOL 310, BIOL 320, and ZOOL 400 or PERM/ INST.

BIOL 461 ADVANCED TOPICS IN AQUATIC BIOLOGY (1-0-1)(F/S). An exploration of the current primary literature in aquatic biology. Topics vary, and may include community dynamics of algae, fish, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates; trophic relationships; stream and reservoir management; primary and secondary production; organic matter and nutrient dynamics; and wetland ecology. May be repeated once for credit. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and PERM/INST.

BIOL 462 ADVANCED TOPICS IN ANIMAL BEHAVIOR (1-0-1)(F/S). Exploration of current animal behavior and behavioral ecology literature through group discussion and presentations. Topics vary and may include animal mating systems, foraging, group living, behavioral endocrinology, conservation and wildlife management related to behavior, behavioral genetics, dispersal, orientation and migration, neurobiology of behavior, and others. May be repeated once for credit. PREREQ: BIOL 433 or 533 or ZOOL 434 or 534 or PERM/INST.

BIOL 463 ADVANCED TOPICS IN GENETIC ANALYSIS (2-0-2)(S). Presentation and discussion of topics such as human chromosome evolution, forensic DNA analysis, artificial evolution, mutation and disease, genetic patents, drug target development. PREREQ: BIOL 310 and PERM/INST.

BIOL 465 ADVANCED TOPICS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES (1-0-1)(F). Discussion of scientific literature with emphasis on modern molecular biology techniques. Students will lead discussions and present articles from relevant primary literature. May be repeated twice for credit. PREREQ: BIOL 310 and PERM/INST.

BIOL 466 ADVANCED TOPICS IN MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (1-0-1)(S). Discussion of current research. Students will lead discussions and present articles, as well as monitor recent relevant primary literature. Previous enrollment in BIOL 465 is recommended. May be repeated twice for credit. PREREQ: BIOL 310, BIOL 320 and PERM/INST.

BIOL 477 (ME 477)(MSE 477) BIOMATERIALS (3-0-3)(F/S). Theory of biomaterials science. Medical and biological materials and their applications. Selection, properties, characterization, design and testing of materials used by or in living systems. PREREQ: CHEM 112 or MSE 245.

BIOL 481 RESEARCH IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (1-0-1)(F,S). Seminars by biologists on a wide range of subjects. Students will attend seminars, write summaries, and search for relevant literature. (Pass/Fail.) May be repeated once for credit.

BIOL 485 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH AND INTERNSHIPS IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (V-0-V)(F,S,SU)(FF). Students work with a faculty mentor or community to develop independent research or internship projects, respectively, to address a relevant question in biological research or perform a biologically relevant project with a community partner. Students work in teams to accomplish the research or project goals and present the outcomes of their research or projects in a public venue. Can be taken for 2-4 credits to fulfill the Finishing Foundations requirement. Instructions to apply for this Finishing Foundations Option

BIOL 488 SENIOR OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT (0-0-0)(F,S). Required to graduate. Senior biology and biology, secondary education students will take an outcomes assessment examination lasting approximately 3 hours. (Pass/Fail.) PREREQ: Senior standing.

BIOL 498, 499 BIOLOGY SEMINAR (1-0-1)(F/S). A review of pertinent literature on selected topics. Restricted to senior biology majors.


BOT 302 PLANT ANATOMY AND MICROTECHNIQUE (3-3-4)(S)(Odd years). A study of the structure and development of vascular plant tissues, regions, and organs. Emphasis will be placed on the Angiosperms. Laboratory work includes preparation of hand and paraffin sections, staining, and observation of plant tissues using various types of light microscopy. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192.

BOT 305 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY (2-6-4)(S). Fundamental problems of taxonomy. Discussion of historical development of classification systems and comparison of recent systems. Instruction on use of keys and manuals. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or PERM/INST.

BOT 330 MYCOLOGY (3-3-4)(F). A study of the biology of fungi with emphasis on their classification, morphology and development, identification, ecology, and economic significance. Laboratory work will include projects and field trips. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.

BOT 401 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (3-3-4)(F)(Odd years)(FF). A study of plant biophysical and biochemical processes. Includes coverage of cell, tissue, and organ function, photosynthesis, water relations, mineral nutrition, transport mechanisms, growth and development, secondary metabolites, and plant responses to the environment. PREREQ: BIOL 304.

BOT 424 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY (3-6-5)(F)(Even years). Properties, structure, method of analysis, classification, and dynamic nature of plant communities. Strengths and weaknesses of various sampling techniques, the role of disturbance events and succession on community structure, and the role of biological interaction as factors influencing the assembly of communities. Vegetation sampling methods and habitat type classification of local plant communities. Methods of analyzing and reporting data. BOT 305 highly recommended. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and PERM/INST.

BOT 430 MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF PLANTS (3-0-3)(S)(Odd Years). Discussion of plant development, plant responses to abiotic factors, and interactions between plants and other organisms from a molecular and cellular perspective. Examination of molecular approaches used to improve plant traits that facilitate sustainable agriculture and remediation of environmental problems. Students conduct a long term experiment to gain experience in plant transformation. PREREQ: BIOL 310.

BOT 441 PLANT DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (3-3-4)(S)(Even years). A description of plant development from a molecular and cellular perspective. Topics discussed include gene expression and cell signaling pathways, and their roles in the control of embryogenesis, plant growth, flowering, and fruit maturation. Examination of techniques and model systems used in the study of plant development. PREREQ: BIOL 310.


ZOOL 301 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY (2-6-4)(F). The evolutionary development of vertebrate anatomy, fishes through mammals. Dissection of the shark, salamander, and cat plus demonstrations of other vertebrate types. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/ INST.

ZOOL 305 ENTOMOLOGY (2-3-3)(F). The general anatomy, physiology and developmental biology of insects, and ecological and evolutionary relationships and interactions of insects with humans. Field trips to collect and identify local species. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or PERM/INST.

ZOOL 307 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (2-6-4)(S)(Alternate years). Morphology, taxonomy, and natural history of the marine invertebrate animals and terrestrial arthropods exclusive of the insects. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or PERM/INST.

ZOOL 341 ORNITHOLOGY (2-3-3)(S)(Odd years). Birds as examples of biological principles: classification, identification, ecology, behavior, life histories, distribution, and adaptations of birds. Two weekend field trips. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192, ZOOL 355 and PERM/INST. 

ZOOL 355 VERTEBRATE NATURAL HISTORY (2-6-4)(Intermittently). Classification, identification, evolution, ecological relationships, behavior, and life histories of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Two weekend field trips. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or PERM/INST.

ZOOL 400 VERTEBRATE HISTOLOGY (2-6-4)(S)(Even years). Microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and organ systems of vertebrates. Major emphasis will be on mammalian systems. PREREQ: BIOL 320 or ZOOL 301.

ZOOL 401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY (3-3-4)(S)(FF). Functional aspects of human tissues and organ systems with emphasis on regulatory and homeostatic mechanisms.  PREREQ: BIOL 310 and BIOL 320.

ZOOL 402 HUMAN ENDOCRINOLOGY (3-0-3)(S). Physiology, molecular biology, and clinical aspects of the human endocrine system, with focus on the role of the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, gonads, pancreas, and skeleton. PREREQ: BIOL 320 or PERM/INST.

ZOOL 403 (KINES 403) HEAD AND NECK ANATOMY (2-2-3)(F,S). Use of human cadavers to study prosections of head and neck with emphasis on clinical relevance. Integument, osteology, myology, circulatory systems, lymphatics, oral and dental tissues, neuroanatomy, cranial nerves, general innervation, and salivary glands. May be taken for KINES or ZOOL credit but not both. PREREQ: BIOL 191-192 or BIOL 227-228 or PERM/INST.

ZOOL 409 GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY (3-3-4)(F)(FF). Physiological principles common to all forms of animal life are discussed. Physiological adaptations required to live in a variety of environments are presented. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and BIOL 320.

ZOOL 411 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (0-3-1)(S)(FF). Laboratory for Human Physiology 401. Methods in the functional aspects of human tissues and organ systems with emphasis on regulatory and homeostatic mechanisms. PRE/COREQ: ZOOL 401.

ZOOL 421 MAMMALOGY (2-3-3)(S)(Even years). The biology of mammals: ecology, life histories, reproduction, classification, identification, distribution, and adaptations. One weekend field trip. PREREQ: BIOL 304 and ZOOL 355 or an upper-division zoology course.

ZOOL 425 AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY (3-3-4)(F)(Even years). The taxonomy and ecology of the insects most commonly encountered in freshwater environments. Emphasis on identification and biology of individual taxa, aquatic insect community ecology, environmental pollution assessment, and natural resource management. PREREQ: BIOL 304.

ZOOL 434 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR (3-3-4)(F)(Even years). Focuses on the concepts and processes of animal behavior, with particular emphasis on proximate perspectives. The history of the study of animal behavior, behavioral genetics, the nervous system and behavior, hormones and behavior, ontogeny of behavior, learning and motivation, and other aspects of behavior such as migration, orientation, and navigation will be presented. PREREQ: BIOL 304 or PERM/INST.